Osteoporosis results from a gradual loss of bone density throughout the skeleton. Osteoporosis puts a person at increased risk for bone fractures. Both men and women can be at risk for osteoporosis as they age. For women, the risk especially increases once they reach menopause.
A bone mineral density test called a DEXA scan is a method for determining your risk of a fracture due to osteoporosis. Since most women (particularly those younger than 65) who undergo a DEXA scan do not turn out to have osteoporosis, a number of tools have been developed to figure out whether or not someone would benefit from bone mineral density testing.
Here is one such tool based on the Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE) method for postmenopausal women. While it does not include all risk factors for osteoporosis, it does include some that can be mathematically incorporated into an assessment tool.